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Comprehensive analysis of pure water treatment technology and treatment principles

Author:广州纯科 Click: Time:2021-08-30 00:00:00 From:广州纯科环保科技有限公司

What pure water treatment?


Pure water refers to pure water, which generally uses urban tap water as the water source. Through multi-layer filtration, harmful substances such as microorganisms can be removed, but at the same time, it also removes fluorine, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other minerals required by the human body.

With the rapid development of modern technology and modern industry, and the relative lag in environmental governance, the current situation of water pollution in my country is severe. Due to the uncontrolled discharge of industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater and agricultural pollution, the current surface water not only contains mud, sand, animal and plant decay. There are also a large amount of bleach, pesticides, heavy metals, lime, iron, and other substances that are harmful to human health. These pollutants accumulate in the human body for a long time and are harmful to human health. They can cause cancer, mutagenesis, and distortion. Zheng's killer. The traditional tap water production process not only cannot remove the organic compounds in it, but if chlorine is added in the tap water production, it will generate new and more intense organic pollution such as chloroform, which makes tap water more mutagenic than natural water. , And after the tap water leaves the factory, it needs to go through a long water pipeline system, especially the water tank on the roof of high-rise residential buildings, which has more serious "secondary pollution". Of course, this type of water cannot be drunk raw. Even if it is boiled, it can only sterilize and cannot remove harmful chemicals. Furthermore, drinking pure water can not only eliminate harm to health, but also benefit health and longevity. Because the purer the water, the better the function as a carrier, the stronger the ability to dissolve various metabolites in the body, the easier it is to be absorbed by the body, which is beneficial to the production of body fluids to quench thirst and relieve fatigue. Therefore, in order to maintain health, improve people’s health, develop the pure water business, and produce high-quality drinking water, pure water treatment is to purify the tap water for a second time to further filter the harmful substances such as chlorides and bacteria in the tap water to achieve elimination. The effect of bacteria and disinfection.

Pure water treatment method:

1、Membrane microporous filtration (MF) pure water treatment process

1) Membrane microporous filtration includes three forms: depth filtration, mesh filtration, and surface filtration. Depth filtration is a matrix made of woven fibers or compressed materials, which uses inert adsorption or capture methods to retain particles, such as commonly used multi-media filtration or sand filtration; deep filtration is a more economical way to remove 98 % Of suspended solids, while protecting the downstream purification unit from being blocked, so it is usually used as a pretreatment.

2) Surface filtration is a multi-layer structure. When the solution passes through the filter membrane, particles larger than the pores inside the filter membrane will be left behind and mainly accumulated on the surface of the filter membrane, such as the commonly used PP fiber filtration. Surface filtration can remove more than 99.9% of suspended solids, so it can also be used for pretreatment or clarification.

3)The mesh filter membrane basically has a consistent structure, just like a sieve, leaving particles larger than the pore size on the surface (the pore measurement of this filter membrane is very accurate), such as the end-use ultrapure water machine Use a security filter; screen filtration and microporous filtration are generally placed at the final point of use in the purification system to remove the last remaining traces of resin flakes, carbon chips, colloids and microorganisms.

 2. Activated carbon adsorption pure water treatment

1) Activated carbon adsorption is a method that uses the porous nature of activated carbon to remove one or more harmful substances in water by being adsorbed on the solid surface. Activated carbon adsorption has a good effect on the removal of organic matter, colloids, microorganisms, residual chlorine, smell, etc. in water. At the same time, because activated carbon has a certain reducing effect, it also has a good effect on removing oxidants in water.

2)Since the adsorption function of activated carbon has a saturation value, when the saturated adsorption capacity is reached, the adsorption function of the activated carbon filter will be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the analysis of the adsorption capacity of activated carbon, timely replacement of activated carbon or high-pressure steam for disinfection and recovery. But at the same time, the organic matter adsorbed on the surface of activated carbon may become a nutrient source or hotbed for bacterial reproduction. Therefore, the reproduction of microorganisms in the activated carbon filter is also worthy of attention. Regular disinfection is necessary to control the growth of bacteria. It is worth noting that in the initial stage of using activated carbon (or the initial operation of newly replaced activated carbon), a small amount of extremely fine powdered activated carbon may enter the reverse osmosis system along with the water flow, causing fouling of the reverse osmosis membrane flow channel and causing operation The pressure rises, the water output falls and the pressure drop of the system rises, and this destructive effect is difficult to recover with conventional cleaning methods. Therefore, the activated carbon must be rinsed, and the fine powder can be removed before the filtered water can be sent to the subsequent RO system. Activated carbon has a great effect, but it must be disinfected during use and the new activated carbon must be rinsed.

3.Reverse osmosis (RO) pure water treatment

1)Reverse osmosis means that when a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied to the side of the concentrated solution, the solvent in the concentrated solution will flow to the dilute solution. The direction of this solvent flow is opposite to the original permeation direction. This process is called reverse osmosis; this This principle is used in the field of liquid separation for purification, impurity removal, and treatment of liquid substances.

2)The working principle of reverse osmosis membrane: The membrane that is selective to the permeable material is called semi-permeable membrane. Generally, the membrane that can only pass through the solvent but not the solute is called the ideal semi-permeable membrane. When the same volume of dilute solution (such as fresh water) and concentrated solution (such as salt water) are placed on both sides of the semi-permeable membrane, the solvent in the dilute solution will naturally pass through the semi-permeable membrane and flow spontaneously to the side of the concentrated solution. This phenomenon is called penetration. When the osmosis reaches equilibrium, the liquid level on the side of the concentrated solution will be higher than the liquid level of the dilute solution by a certain height, that is, a pressure difference is formed, and this pressure difference is the osmotic pressure. Reverse osmosis is a reverse migration movement of osmosis. It is a separation method that separates the solute in the solvent from the solvent by the selective retention of a semipermeable membrane under pressure. It has been widely used in the purification of various solutions And concentration, the most common application example is in the water treatment process, the use of reverse osmosis technology to remove impurities such as inorganic ions, bacteria, viruses, organic matter and colloids in the raw water to obtain high-quality pure water.

4.Ion exchange (IX) pure water treatment

1)Ion exchange pure water equipment is a traditional water treatment process in which various anions and cations in the water are replaced by anion and cation exchange resins. The anion and cation exchange resins can be matched in different proportions to form an ion exchange cation bed system. The anion bed system and the ion exchange mixed bed (multi-bed) system, and the mixed bed (multi-bed) system is usually used after reverse osmosis and other water treatment processes to produce ultra-pure water and high-purity water. It is one of the irreplaceable methods used to prepare ultra-pure water and high-purity water. The conductivity of the effluent can be lower than 1uS/cm, and the resistivity of the effluent can reach more than 1MΩ.cm. According to different water quality and usage requirements, the resistivity of the effluent can be controlled between 1~18MΩ.cm. It is widely used in the preparation of ultra-pure water and high-purity water in industries such as electronics, electric power ultra-pure water, chemical industry, electroplating ultra-pure water, boiler feed water and ultra-pure water for medicine.

2)The salts contained in the raw water such as Ca(HCO3)2, MgSO4 and other calcium magnesium sodium salts. When flowing through the exchange resin layer, the cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ are replaced by the active groups of the cation resin, and the anions HCO3-, SO42-, etc. It is replaced by the active groups of the anion resin, so that the water is ultra-purified. If the bicarbonate content in the raw water is high, a degassing tower should be installed between the anion and cation exchange columns to remove CO2 gas and reduce the load of the anion bed.

5.Ultraviolet (UV) ultrapure water treatment

The main process of cell reproduction is: the long chain of DNA is opened. After opening, each long chain of adenine unit looks for thymine unit to join, and each long chain can replicate the same chain as another long chain that has just been separated. , Restore the original intact DNA before division and become the basis of a new cell. Ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of 240-280nm can break the ability of DNA to produce protein and replicate. Among them, ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of 265nm have the strongest ability to kill bacteria and viruses. After the DNA and RNA of the bacterial virus are damaged, the ability to produce protein and the ability to reproduce have been lost. Because bacteria and viruses generally have a short life cycle, bacteria and viruses that cannot reproduce will die quickly. Ultraviolet rays are used to prevent the survival of microorganisms in tap water to achieve the effect of sterilization and disinfection.

6.Ultrafiltration (UF) pure water treatment

1) Ultrafiltration technology is a high and new technology widely used in the field of water purification, solution separation, concentration, and extraction of useful substances from wastewater, and wastewater purification and reuse. It is characterized by simple use process, no heating, energy saving, low-pressure operation, and small area of the device.

2) Ultrafiltration (UF) pure water treatment principle: Ultrafiltration is a membrane separation process based on the principle of sieving separation and pressure as the driving force. The filtration accuracy is within the range of 0.005-0.01μm, which can effectively remove particles and colloids in the water. , Bacterial cushion and high molecular organic substances. It can be widely used in the separation, concentration and purification of substances. The ultrafiltration process has no phase inversion and is operated at room temperature. It is particularly suitable for the separation of heat-sensitive substances. It has good temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance and oxidation resistance. It can be used continuously for a long time under the conditions of below 60℃ and pH 2-11.

3) Hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane is the most mature and advanced form of ultrafiltration technology. The outer diameter of the hollow fiber is 0.5-2.0mm, and the inner diameter is 0.3-1.4mm. The wall of the hollow fiber tube is full of micropores. The pore diameter is expressed by the molecular weight of the material that can be retained, and the molecular weight can be cut off from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The raw water flows under pressure on the outside of the hollow fiber or in the inner cavity to form an external pressure type and an internal pressure type, respectively. Ultrafiltration is a dynamic filtration process. The retained substances can be removed with concentration without clogging the membrane surface, and it can run continuously for a long time.

7. EDI pure water treatment

The working principle of EDI ultrapure water treatment equipment: Electrodeionization (EDI) system is mainly under the action of direct current electric field, the dielectric ions in the water passing through the partition move directionally, and the selective permeation of ions by the exchange membrane is used to improve the water quality. A scientific water treatment technology for purification. Between a pair of electrodes of an electrodialyzer, there are usually multiple sets of anion membrane, cation membrane and separators (A, B) alternately arranged to form a dense chamber and a weak chamber (that is, cations can pass through the cation membrane, and anions can pass through the anion membrane). The cations in the water in the depleted room migrate to the negative electrode through the positive membrane, and are intercepted by the negative membrane in the thick chamber; the anions in the water migrate towards the positive electrode and are intercepted by the positive membrane in the thick room, so that the number of ions in the water passing through the depleted room gradually decreases. It becomes fresh water, and the water in the thick room, due to the continuous influx of anions and cations in the thick room, the concentration of dielectric ions continues to rise, and becomes thick water, so as to achieve the purpose of desalination, purification, concentration or refining.

Advantages of EDI ultrapure water treatment equipment:

1) No need for acid-base regeneration: the resin in the mixed bed needs to be regenerated with chemicals acid-base, and EDI eliminates the processing and heavy work of these harmful substances. Protect the environment.

2) Continuous and simple operation: In the mixed bed, the operation process becomes complicated due to each regeneration and the change of water quality, while the water production process of EDI is stable and continuous, and the water quality is constant, without complicated operations The procedure and operation are greatly simplified.

3) Reduced installation requirements: EDI system has a smaller volume than a mixed bed with a considerable amount of treated water. It adopts a modular structure and can be flexibly constructed according to the height and scent of the site. Modular design makes EDI easy to maintain during production work.

8.Ozone sterilization ultrapure water treatment

The disinfection principle of ozone (O3) is: the molecular structure of ozone is unstable at normal temperature and pressure, and it will quickly decompose into oxygen (O2) and a single oxygen atom (O); the latter has strong activity and is extremely active against bacteria. Strong oxidation will kill it, and the excess oxygen atoms will recombine themselves into ordinary oxygen atoms (O2). There is no toxic residue, so it is called a pollution-free disinfectant. It is not only effective against various bacteria (including hepatitis) Viruses, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria, etc.) have a very strong killing ability, and it is also very effective for killing mycin.

1)The sterilization mechanism and process of ozone belong to the biochemical process, which oxidizes and decomposes glucose oxidase, which is necessary for oxidizing glucose inside bacteria.

2)  Directly interact with bacteria and viruses, destroy their organelles and ribonucleic acid, decompose DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and polysaccharides and other macromolecular polymers, so that the process of material metabolism, production and reproduction of bacteria is destroyed.

3)  Infiltrate the cell membrane tissue, invade the cell membrane and act on the outer membrane lipoproteins and internal lipopolysaccharides, causing the cells to undergo permeation distortion, leading to cell lysis and death. In addition, the genetic genes, parasitic species, parasitic virus particles, bacteriophages, mycoplasma and pyrogens (bacterial virus metabolites, endotoxins) in the dead bacteria are dissolved, denatured and killed.

Comprehensive analysis of pure water treatment technology and treatment principles
Pure water refers to pure water, which generally uses urban tap water as the water source. Through multi-layer filtration, harmful substances such as microorganisms can be removed, but at the same tim
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